Botulinum toxin seven immulologically distinct subtypes identified a g botulinum a toxin isolated in 1920s and purified in 1946 dr david scott 1973 effect of botulinum toxin on lateral rectus muscle of the monkey 1981 first application in humans treating strabismus botulinum a toxin botox approved in 1981 by fda. Botulinum toxin is not believed to enter the central nervous system the efficacy of botulinum a toxin for the treatment of ido is the newest area of research in the lower urinary tract in their prospective randomized urology 2006 681193 7 46. Introduction botulinum toxin is a neurotoxin produced by clostridium botulinum species of bacteria this powerful toxin which is the most poisonous substance known to mankind has been used in highly dilute concentrations in urology. The application of botulinum toxin in urology opens a window for urologists and urogynecologists to see an interesting garden through the treatment results of more clinical trials we learn more about how to apply botulinum toxin as a therapeutic agent in the treatment of lower urinary tract. The minimally invasive use of botulinum toxin bont in the lower urinary tract has revolutionized the treatment of debilitating bladder urethra and prostate conditions refractory to conventional therapy this is the first book focusing on the practical application of bont to the genitourinary tract
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